Visual attention both guides and is guided by learning and memory systems. A great deal of research has shown that what is attended, and the development of visual attention, is critical for what is learned from a complex environment in infancy. In this talk, I will focus on the learning and memory mechanisms that in turn impact attention orienting. I will present data on reward learning and hierarchical rule learning in infancy. I will end with the idea that a multiple-memory systems approach offers a useful organizational structure for research on interactions between attention and memory.